Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan and the immune system
Peyer's Patches are clusters of lymph nodules in the small intestine. They are considered to be the immune sensors of the intestine, as their function is to trap, analyse and destroy bacteria, to and generate memory B cells and memory T cells. The respiratory tract has a similar defense system.
Microfold cells (M cells)
Peyer's Patches are covered by a tissue that contains specialized cells called microfold cells (M cells). M cells have the unique ability to transport organisms and particles from the intestine to immune cells located in a pocket-like structure underneath. Those immune cells are macrophages, lymphocytes (T cells and M cells) and dendritic cells, which receives the antigens and delivers them to the other immune cells. These cells then moves to the lymph nodes where the immune response is amplified.
M cells are exploited by several pathogens, including salmonella bacteria, tuberculosis bacteria, polio virus and a variant of HIV, CXCR4: They are able to get transported through the M cells.
Absorption of Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan
In the small intestine are there some cells called microfold cells (M cells). M cells have the unique ability to transport organisms and particles from the intestine to immune cells located in a pocket-like structure underneath
M cells can transport beta-glucan particles from the intestine to macrophages located in the pocket-like structure underneath. The beta-glucan binds with macrophages, which start a chain reaction of events:
1) The macrophages digest the beta-glucan and break it down into smaller pieces.
2) The macrophages send signal molecules to other immune cells, which increases their activity.
3) Some macrophages moves to the bone marrow and stimulate the production of immune cells.